Via Scientiarum

„Via Scientiarum” jeb „Zinību ceļš” ir starptautiska jauno valodnieku zinātniska konference. To reizi divos gados organizē Liepājas Universitātes un Ventspils Augstskolas apvienotās doktora studiju programmas „Valodniecība” studenti un pasniedzēji. Pēc konferences tiek izdots recenzēts zinātnisku rakstu krājums „Via Scientiarum”. Sākotnēji tas tika izdots tikai iespiestā formā, taču no 2017. gada krājumā publicētie raksti tiek izvietoti arī tiešsaistē.

Via Scientiarum I (2012)
Via Scientiarum II (2014)

Via Scientiarum III (2016)

Via Scientiarum III (2016) rakstu krājums (PDF)

Satura rādītājs

Lappuse
Priekšvārds 5
Vita BALAMA  Semantics of culture environment: translation of cultural references 8

KULTŪRVIDES SEMANTIKA: KULTŪRVIDI RAKSTUROJOŠO LEKSISKO VIENĪBU TULKOJUMI

Kopsavilkums Raksta mērķis ir noskaidrot kultūrspecifisku leksisko vienību identifikācijas procedūru un izpētīt to pārnešanas veidus no avotkultūras mērķkultūrā. Kā avotteksts tika izvēlēts materiāls no Džona Grišama romāna „Pelikānu lieta” angļu valodā un tā tulkojums latviešu valodā kā mērķteksts. Teksta materiālā tika identificētas 329 kultūrvidi raksturojošas leksiskās vienības avottekstā un attiecīgi 273 kultūrvidi raksturojošas leksiskās vienības mērķtekstā. Atšķirība kultūrvidi raksturojošo leksisko vienību skaitā abās valodās rodas tulkojuma daudzo izlaidumu dēļ, tieši tulkojot  kultūrvidi raksturojošās leksiskās vienības. Pētījuma norise tika sadalīta vairākos posmos: pirmkārt,  kultūrvidi raksturojošo leksisko vienību identifikācija avotvalodas tekstā, otrkārt, attiecīgo  kultūrvidi raksturojošo leksisko vienību konstatēšana mērķvalodas tekstā (ja tas iespējams), treškārt, tulkošanas iespējamo procedūru noteikšana, un visbeidzot, kultūrvidi raksturojošās leksiskās vienības tulkošana mērķvalodā, izmantojot vispieņemamāko tulkojuma veidu. Analizējot  kultūrvidi raksturojošo leksisko vienību tulkojumus, tika izstrādāta klasifikācijas sistēma tulkošanas paņēmieniem, proti, (1) tieša  kultūrvidi raksturojošas leksiskās vienības pārnešana mērķvalodā, (2) kultūrvidi raksturojošas leksiskās vienības pārnese ar skaidru piebildi, (3)  kultūrvidi raksturojošas leksiskās vienības pārnese ar (plašāku) paskaidrojumu, (4) mērķvalodas izteiciena, kas attiecas uz avotvalodu, lietošana, (5)  kultūrvidi raksturojošas leksiskās vienības neitrāls skaidrojums/ tulkojums, (6) kultūrvidi raksturojošas leksiskās vienības izlaidums, (7) kultūrvidi raksturojošas leksiskās vienības aizstāšana ar mērķvalodas kultūras ekvivalentu. Raksta autore secina, ka viena no galvenajām problēmām kultūrvidi raksturojošo leksisko vienību analīzē ir ticama kultūrvidi raksturojošo leksisko vienību identifikācija, kas ir zināmā mērā intuitīvs un tādēļ arī subjektīvs process. Tulkotāja radošajai pieejai ir noteicošā loma, pārnesot  kultūrvidi raksturojošas leksiskās vienības no avotvalodas mērķvalodā. Tā kā izlaidumi, tulkojot kultūrvidi raksturojošas leksiskās vienības, ir radījuši vislielākās atšķirības tekstos avotvalodā un mērķvalodā, īpaša uzmanība tika pievērsta izlaidumu veidiem tulkojumos. Visbeidzot autore konstatē, ka  kultūrvidi raksturojošo leksisko vienību tulkojumus var izmantot, nosakot ārējās (citas) vai vietējās (pašmāju) kultūras tendences tulkotāja pieejā, apstrādājot teksta kultūras mantojumu.
Normunds DZINTARS   Atsevišķu latviešu valodas mācību satura jautājumu izklāsts 20. gs. 50.–70. gados 17

Discussion of Some Aspects of the Content of Latvian Language Learning in Schools in 1950s-1970s

Summary The aim of the given paper is to analyse how linguistic ideas differ in their scientific and school applications in relation to certain study content. For a long period it was defined in the school study programmes that Latvian should be taught as a science by noting the fact that it is impossible to cover the entire scientific system.  The author of this paper agrees with Artūrs Ozols who recommended to separate scientific linguistics and school linguistics. In case of scientific linguistics it is certainly reasonable to cover all branches of linguistics and recent developments which contribute to the research of the Latvian language. Meanwhile, school linguistics should be defined as a set of linguistic ideas to be covered in a school study programme. The respective study content which is selected and aligned in line with the needs of students is further included in textbooks designed according to the study programme requirements. The paper focuses on the impact of linguistic research on the study content by paying special attention to doctoral thesis of linguists which became or could become a basis for a new or advanced study content, and on some specific study content elements covering phonetics, morphology and syntax. For instance, regarding the study content of phonetics, the given paper covers teaching of sound transitions by also describing advancement of the respective study content. In morphology, the article covers the study of particles, while in syntax – the linguistic interpretation of the sentence subject and syntax of word groups.
Ieva ELSBERGA   Svešvalodu mācīšanas metodika Latvijā starpkaru periodā. Vācu valodas mācību grāmatas 35

FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS IN THE INTERBELLUM IN LATVIA. GERMAN LANGUAGE SCHOOLBOOKS

Summary The present paper investigates the methodological issues of foreign language teaching in Latvia between WWI and WWII. The aim of this article is to show leading tendencies in methods concerning German as a foreign language in Latvia, illustrating them with examples from periodicals and schoolbooks. First there is some discussion about the relevant terminology, that is, about the term “foreign language” and how it is perceived in different traditions, illustrating the difficulties of correct interpretation of this concept based on examples from Latvian and German sources. The defining of the key term is followed by a description of the role and place of German language in Latvian society and, above all, in education in Latvia. Afterwards, the paper deals with relevant articles in main Latvian interbellum periodicals discussing educational matters as well as the schoolbooks for German as a foreign language which were used at the time, following the development in ideas concerning foreign language teaching methods. In conclusion the author summarizes the opposition of the “old” method of teaching and the “new” method of teaching German as a foreign language in Latvia.
Sigita IGNATJEVA   Dublinas 20. gadsimta sākuma slenga atveidojums Dž. Džoisa romāna „Uliss” tulkojumā 47

DUBLIN’S COLLOQUIAL SPEECH OF THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY IN THE TRANSLATION OF ULYSSES BY JAMES JOYCE

Summary The paper deals with translation problems of colloquial speech in a fragment of Chapter 14 of Ulysses by James Joyce. The chapter consists of numerous parodies on English literature and language constructing a peculiar history of those. The chapter ends with a parody of Dublin’s colloquial speech of Joyce’s time – the beginning of the 20th century. Stylistic features of the text are more substantial than the meaning of single words and phrases, and the article discusses rendering of slang, mix of dialect, sociolect and distortion of language, specific sintactic structures in the Latvian translation made by Dzintars Sodums. The analysis is carried out by comparing the original text and four versions of its translation, as Sodums worked on it more than 60 years and three versions of the translation were published (1960, 1993 and 2012). The analysis shows that the translation is more conformable to the language norm than the original, although Sodums has tried to compensate the losses in stylistic peculiarities. Slang lexis has been translated by slang, normative lexis and occasional words. Dialecticisms are rendered by the means of obsolete words (sometimes belonging to Latvian dialects), low colloquial or distortion of language. Frequently the translator has had to choose between several stylistic features and interpretations of meaning. In general, Sodums has given preference to comprehensibility, accessibility of the translation, sometimes losing the complicacy and stylistic peculiarity of the text written by Joyce. Nonetheless the comparison of four versions of translation purports the translator’s scrupulous work improving his first translation of Ulysses.
Inga LAIZĀNE   Lietišķās valodniecības nozīme latviešu valodas kā svešvalodas apguves teorētiskās bāzes attīstīšanā 56

THE ROLE OF APPLIED LINGUISTICS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THEORETICAL BASIS FOR ACQUIRING LATVIAN LANGUAGE AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

Summary In the studies of applied linguistics there are several important language-related areas, but one of the most important areas of applied linguistics was, is and will be the acquisition of languages and theoretical issues relating to it, regardless of whether the particular language is a native language, a second language or a foreign language. Taking into account the different explanations of the concepts of the first language, the second language and foreign language, one can distinguish three directions of Latvian lingua-didactics: the Latvian language as a first (native) language, the Latvian language as a second language and the Latvian language as a foreign language. The second language learning principles were based on the development practice of foreign language teaching. As for the development of theoretical ideas of the Latvian language as a foreign language, Arvils Šalme and Ilze Auziņa’s book “Proficiency levels of Latvian language. Basic level” (Latviešu valodas prasmes līmeņi. Pamatlīmenis) should be definitely mentioned, as it is the most comprehensive study on the content of the acquisition of the Latvian language as a foreign language on A1 and A2 skills levels.
Jeļena LOKASTOVA   Generic structure of maritime e-mails 66

KUĢU MEHĀNIĶU E-PASTU STRUKTŪRA

Kopsavilkums Elektronisko pastu kā efektīvu un ātru saziņas veidu, kam netraucē ne ģeogrāfiskā atrašanās vieta, ne laika joslas, ļoti plaši izmanto jūrnieki. Kuģu mehāniķiem, kuriem angļu valoda ir starptautiskā saziņas valoda jūrā, nepieciešams uzlabot savas e-pasta prasmes, lai mazinātu pārpratumus sarakstē starp kuģi un krastu un nodrošinātu drošāku kuģošanu. Šī pētījuma mērķis ir veikt žanra analīzi īpašajā elektroniskā pasta korpusā, ko rakstījuši kuģu vecākie mehāniķi. Balstoties uz Sveilza (Swales (1990)), Bhatija (Bhatia (1993)) un Santosa (Santos (2002)) žanru analīzes koncepcijām, apvienojumā ar Gimeneza (Gimenez (2000)) un Jensenas (Jensen (2009)) elektronisko ziņojumu pētījumiem, šis pētījums sniedz a) ieskatu valodas lietojumā e-pasta komunikācijā starp kuģu mehāniķiem un b) piedāvā pagaidu modeli būtiskākajiem posmiem un soļiem jūrniecības e-pasta ziņojumos.
Solvita POŠEIKO   Daugavpils lingvistiskā ainava diahroniskā skatījumā 77

THE DIACHRONIC LINGUISTIC LANDSCAPE OF DAUGAVPILS

Summary Daugavpils is the oldest city in the Latgalia region of Latvia, seeing multiple name changes throughout its history (Dünaburg, Borisoglebsk, Dvinsk, Daugavpils). Today, it is the second largest city in Latvia by population and the third largest city by area. The city has always been a center for commerce, industry, education and culture, and such has always been home to a multicultural society. Latvians are a local minority in Daugavpils, and the Latvian, Russian, German, Yiddish and Polish languages have been historically spoken and written by the city’s various inhabitants. This research focuses on the diachronic linguistic landscape of Daugavpils from the mid-19th century until today, divided into four main time periods: the Russian Empire, the First Latvian Republic, the Soviet Union, and the present-day Republic of Latvia (from the end of 20th century to the beginning of the 21st). The sources for this research are historical and contemporary language signs, collected from museum archives, newspapers, history books, digital databases, collector’s forums, and the author’s own photographs taken in 2013. The goal of this text is to characterize the use of language and written codes, typical lexemes and cultural symbols in addition to depictions of social life in various time periods, showing the most significant changes in the traditions of creation of public text. Also briefly discussed is are significant culturo-historical events and language policy, in order to understand 1) how those in power have organized social life in the city and regulated language use in the linguistic landscape; 2) how changes in power have influenced the city’s image as a whole. Main sections: 1. Name signs are the largest language sign category in the linguistic landscape of Daugavpils. Of these, lexemes (common words) are dominant, designating the type of establishment or products or services offered therein. Symbolic titles are few, and can be generally classified under one of the following onyms: anthroponyms, toponyms, and hydronyms. 2. The two languages traditionally used in the linguistic landscape of Daugavpils (Russian and Latvian) have in various times seen changes in prestige and functionality. English, the international language of globalization, has only become a presence since the beginning of the 21st century, seen in a symbolic and informative function mainly in the marketing, entertainment and tourism sectors. The use of other foreign languages (e.g.,  Yiddish, German, Polish, Italian and French) is sporadic and mainly has a symbolic function. 3. The role of the Russian language has seen the most change in the linguistic landscape: from the 19th century until the 20th it dominated in the official and commercial domains in monolingual language signs. Later on in this period until the 1920’s, Russian was used fragmentally in mono- and bilingual commercial signs. In the Soviet period, Russian was widely used in both official, commercial  and private monolingual language signs, in addition to use in official and commercial bilingual written texts. After Latvian independence, the presence of Russian in the linguistic landscape is minimal, used only to provide supplementary information or offers of goods and services in conjunction with other languages (in company signs, posters), and seen in self-referential graffiti texts. 4. The domain of Latvian in public information expanded during the first period of Latvian independence, when nationalistic ideas were actualized and Latvian language use was supported by normative documents regulating language use. 5. Typical artistic and stylistic considerations involved in the creation of language signs are considered: capitalization and title case, font, size and color, stylized letters and the use of images. These design considerations have remained part of a stable tradition of information display. The general characterization of the linguistic landscape in conjunction with specific examples show that language is a powerful tool for regimes to implement ideologies, and that language policy and management is essential for the regulation of the situation in each of the time periods considered.
Laura RITENBERGA-KINDERE   Rakstisku un mutisku aptauju izvērtēšanas problēmas pētījumā par bērnu un jauniešu valodu Vācijas latviešu diasporā 103

AUSWERTUNGSPROBLEME VON SCHRIFTLICHEN UND MÜNDLICHEN UMFRAGEN IN DER UNTERSUCHUNG DER KINDER- UND JUGENDSPRACHE IN DER LETTISCHEN DIASPORA DEUTSCHLANDS

Zusammenfassung Ähnlich wie die meisten europäischen Länder, wurde auch Lettland von der globalen Wirtschaftskrise betroffen, was zu einer Auswanderungswelle geführt hat. Die Entwicklung der lettischen Sprache (sowohl im Zusammenhang mit dem Spracherwerb, als auch mit der Motivation, den Lernmethoden und den Möglichkeiten) in verschiedenen lettischen Diaspora ist ein wenig erforschtes, aber ein zurzeit besonders aktuelles Thema. Die Mehrsprachigkeitsforschung ist ein interdisziplinäres Phänomen, das von verschiedenen Disziplinen mit Hilfe von verschiedenen Forschungsmethoden und verschiedenen Kombinationen unterschiedlicher Methoden erforscht wird. Die Wahl der Methoden bestimmt das definierte Ziel und das zu erreichende Ergebnis. Im Artikel werden Problemsituationen analysiert, die bei der Auswertung der Ergebnisse von schriftlichen und mündlichen Umfragen und bei der Vorbereitung der Ergebnisse für eine quantitative und qualitative Untersuchung entstehen. Aufgeführt werden Beispiele aus einer angefangenen Untersuchung über die Sprache der Kinder und der Jugendlichen in der lettischen Diaspora Deutschlands.
Ineta STADGALE   Speciālā leksika patvēruma un migrācijas jautājumiem veltītajos tekstos mūsdienu informācijas telpā 111

THE USE OF SPECIAL LEXIS IN CONTEMPORARY LATVIAN MASS MEDIA: ASYLUM AND MIGRATION TEXTS

Summary The aim of the paper is to draw attention to the increased use of asylum and migration lexis in Latvian mass media. The paper points to the interconnections between the notions and terms from different fields and looks on the public discourse from three main thematic angles: topics linked to war and military conflicts, immigration processes, and emigration and Latvian diaspora. Lexical units used in these informative texts characterize processes, conditions and state facilitating the mobility of people – voluntary or forced migration (escaping). In the 21st century different notions, meanings of terms change and new notions and terms arise. Increase of the names of places and countries and different organisations is observed in these thematic texts, as well as the use of metaphors, synonyms and other stylistic means. Informative and emotional signals of these texts are mainly worrying and negative.
Zane ŠAMŠURO   Alūzijas kā kultūrspecifiska vienība 124

ALLUSION AS A CULTURE SPECIFIC ITEM

Abstract The author of the paper looks at allusions as culture specific items from theoretical viewpoint. Without any doubt political rhetoric uses a significant amount of allusions that are regarded as culture specific. In the framework of the specific research, types of allusions, their functions and classifications have been considered. A part of the paper is devoted to the description of possible translation methods. It is concluded that allusions are a frequently used instrument of political rhetoric, but due to their culture specific nature, their sense is altered or lost.
Inese TREIMANE   Latviešu juridisko tekstu pirmsākumi 130

THE ORIGIN OF LATVIAN LEGAL TEXTS

Summary Latvian legal genre originated in the 17th century when first legal texts were published in Latvian. Likewise other genres, first Latvian legal texts were translations done by priests who used mainly German as the source language. The method used by translators at that time was not „legal translation” as we understand the concept today: it was rather digest or brief overview of the original, and the translator could freely add some comments or omit paragraphs which he regarded redundant. Thereby the translators became first interpreters of legal texts. One of the oldest legal texts published in Latvian is „Kara artikuli” (Warfare Articles), adopted by Swedish King Karl XI in 1683, which comprised rules and code of conduct for soldiers of the Swedish army. Although translated into Latvian, the text and its message is incomprehensible for Latvian reader due to the poor quality of the translation. The problem of comprehensibility and peculiar character of legal language emerged the day the first legal texts were born. And from the very dawn of legal writing and drafting there have been efforts to elaborate legal texts so as to make them clear and comprehensible for „ordinary people”. As regards Latvian legal texts, there is an evidence of the first corrigendum: when mistakes were found in Latvian translation of local law (1809) (zemnieku likumi), the Russian emperor ordered to notify correction of the text in churches. Nevertheless, the problem of comprehensibility persists even nowadays, and there have been numerous efforts to cope with the problem, but the results are still not satisfactory enough. The conservative character of legal language, the inertia of using traditional wordings and formulas is very strong. And, moreover, it should be kept in mind, that Latvian legal tradition is in fact tradition of translation which means that Latvian legal texts inevitably bear imprints of strange linguistic habits and interferences. However, legal texts are very interesting and valuable source of information regarding national history, since the structure of legal norms and the particular subject-field can reveal customs, lifestyle and possible faults or „national code” of the time and the society.
Daira VĒVERE   Sociolingvistiskie novērojumi dažās tāmnieku izloksnēs 140

SOCIOLINGUISTIC OBSERVATIONS IN SOME SUBDIALECTS OF TĀMNIEKI

Summary Dialects change and disappear, therefore, it is necessary to record and research them. Sociolinguistic observations have become increasingly topical in dialectology nowadays. They help to elucidate the importance and usage of subdialects. The aim of the paper is to describe a sociolinguistic situation of the subdialects of Pope, Ugāle and Piltene nowadays. Sociolinguistic questionnaires and scientific expeditions were used to accomplish the aim of the research. The answers to the questionnaires are analyzed in the paper. It can be concluded that the majority of people, especially seniors, do not avoid speaking a subdialect. A part of young people try to speak the standard Latvian instead, because they use new technologies and communicate with people from another regions. It is proved that the subdialects of Pope, Ugāle and Piltene are still spoken, but endangered.
Inga ZNOTIŅA   Otrās baltu valodas apguvēju korpusa morfoloģiska anotēšana 148

MORPHOLOGICAL ANNOTATION OF A LEARNER CORPUS OF THE SECOND BALTIC LANGUAGE

Summary One of the most popular annotation types in corpus linguistics is morphological annotation. It is also popular in Latvia and Lithuania, albeit not much used in learner corpora here. General corpora of both languages have been morphologically annotated, and automatic tools for morphological analysis of both languages have been created. Five subtypes of morphological annotation can be divided. Lemmatization and part of speech annotation would also be a good choice for the learner corpus of the second Baltic language, while morphemic annotation, inflection (word form) annotation and stemming are not seen as a priority for it. Some important factors include the large amount of various errors which make this kind of corpora rather unfitting for automatic annotation. Besides, every kind of annotation can be, to some extent, subjective, and, the more varieties of errors there are, the more intuitive the annotation process may become. This, in turn, can make the resulting annotated corpus less objectively reliable for research.
Tiesību zinātņu speciālistu valodas iezīmes.  Recenzija (Solvita Štekerhofa) 161

 

Brīvības un prieka klimatā.  Intervija ar Akselu Holvūtu (Inga Znotiņa) 164